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Prof. dr. A.T. (Astrid) Groot

Professor Population & Evolutionary biology
Faculty of Science
Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics
Photographer: Dirk Gillissen

Visiting address
  • Science Park 904
  • Room number:C3.210
Postal address
  • Postbus 94240
    1090 GE Amsterdam
Contact details
  • Research

    Evolution of chemical communication and speciation

    Chemical communication is the oldest form of communication in nature. How individuals within and between species interact through chemical signals and responses determines to a large extent the network of life. To gain insight in the evolution of chemical communication, we study the evolution of sexual communication through sex pheromones, because sexual attraction is the first step in determining who mates with whom and thus plays a pivotal role in the process of speciation. Nocturnal moths are ideal animals to study the causes and consequences of variation in chemical signals and responses, because their communication channel is virtually all pheromonal, and the pheromone components are very well defined. Our research revolves around the following two major questions: I) what is the genetic basis of intraspecific variation in sexual communication, and II) what are the causes and consequences of variation in sexual communication. Our research can be divided into the following main areas:

    Genetic basis of sex pheromone signals and responses

    Heliothis virescens (photo Laila Kee)

    Moth sex pheromones are widely studied as fine-tuned systems that reinforce reproductive isolation between species. Female moths produce a sex pheromone in a well-defined gland that can be readily quantified. The male behavioral response is robust and specific, and the well-studied pheromone sensory system serves as an important model for decoding olfactory preference in general. However, their evolution poses a dilemma: How can the female pheromone and male preference simultaneously change to create a new pattern of species-specific attraction? We aim to solve this puzzle by identifying the genes underlying intraspecific variation in signals (Lassance, Groot et al. 2010. Nature 466) and responses (Koutroumpa et al. 2016. PNAS 113). This project is conducted with David Heckel at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology and is the PhD project of Elise Fruitet (IMPRS fellow).

    Phenotypic plasticity in moth sexual communication

    Heliothis virescens (photo Laila Kee)

    Plasticity in the sex pheromone composition in female moths can be expected, because females produce their pheromone de novo every night and in many moth species females can perceive their own pheromone compounds. We found plasticity in the sex pheromone of a noctuid moth (see Groot et al. 2010. J. Evol. Biol. 23). Therefore, we now investigate the level and extent of plasticity in moth sexual communication, and the underlying mechanisms. PhD project of Rik Lievers, funded by NWO-ALW (award nr. 822.01.012).

    Which sex leads the dance when both are signallers?

    Mating Heliothis virescens pair

    In animals, sexual attraction is essential to finding the right mating partner. Moths are one of the most diverse group of animals, with ~120.000 species, each having its own sexual communication channel. However, sexual selection may also act on moth signals that have hardly been studied at all: close-range attraction, whereby males emit a sex pheromone. The male sex pheromone can be used by females to choose among males, and/or it may function in male-male competition. To develop evolutionary scenarios on how mutual mate choice contributes to speciation and signal diversity, we study the role of male close-range pheromone in female choice and male-male competition. Collaborative project with Coby Schal at NCSU. PhD project of Naomi Zweerus, funded by NWO-ALW (award nr: ALWOP.2015.075 )

    Sex and immunity

    Parasites in moths and butterflies

    Parasites, pathogens and other stress factors early in life (i.e. in the larval stage) likely affect adult (sexual) behaviors. We are exploring differential immune defense responses in the generalist Heliothis virescens and the specialist H. subflexa and possible effects on their sexual communication (see Barthel et al. 2016. Nat. Comm 7). In addition, we are exploring the level and extent of parasite-mediated sexual selection in moths (specifically Helicoverpa armigera) and butterflies, in collaboration with Jacobus de Roode, Jamie Walters, Myron Zalucki and David Heckel. PhD project of Ke Gao

  • Collaborative projects

    Invasive species ecology and evolution: FAW

    Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

    Invasive species can profoundly affect species interactions and pose a serious threat when these species are agricultural pests. The fall army worm (FAW) Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is a major pest in staple crops in North and South America and recently invaded Africa and Asia. Biological control methods that are currently used to control lepidopteran insect pests include pheromone trapping and the spraying of baculoviruses (killing caterpillars). We are investigating the potential combination of both methods, which may yield exciting opportunities for biological control. This project is a collaboration between the UvA (Astrid Groot), WUR (dr. Vera Ros), icipe (prof. Baldwyn Torto, dr. Sevgan Subramanian, dr. Fathiya Khamis), IITA Benin (dr. Georg Goergen), funded by Dioraphte, Simonis BV and Pherobank. PhD students on this project are Renée van Schaijk (at UvA) and Ahmed Ghenga Hussain (at WUR).

    Predicting evolution

    Predicting evolution

    Evolutionary biology can play an important role in solving some of the major challenges mankind faces today. Researchers are therefore working on predicting the evolution of multicellular life through experimental evolution with nematodes at multiple universities. This NWA project is a joint effort of a large number of research groups in the Netherlands and Belgium: The evolution experiment is carried out within the research groups of Astrid Groot (University of Amsterdam), Jacintha Ellers (VU), Marcel Visser and Steven Declerck (NIOO-KNAW), Maurijn van der Zee (LU), Rampal Etienne and Marjon de Vos (RUG), Jan Kammenga (WUR) and Dries Bonte (Ghent Univ). Principal investigators are Karen Bisschop and Thomas Blankers (previously Meike Wortel and Ken Kraaijeveld) and project technician is Janine Mariën.

    Genome analysis of two closely related noctuid moth species

    Heliothis virescens (photo: Laila Kee)

    The two noctuid moths Heliothis virescens (tobacco budworm) and H. subflexa have become model species to investigate the genetic basis of host plant specialization and sexual communication, because these two species can be hybridized in the lab and produce fertile offspring. These two species are so interesting, because H. virescens is a generalist, feeding on many different plant species, while H. subflexa is a specialist, feeding only on Physalis spp. Over the few past decades, several QTL have been identified underlying host plant differentiation, insecticide resistance, and sexual signals and responses. Currently, Megan Fritz (PI, Univ. Maryland), Fred Gould (NCSU), David Heckel (MPICE) and Astrid Groot are collaborating to analyse their genomes in a comparative way. PhD on this project is Rong Guo (Univ. Maryland)

    Chemical communication in woodtiger moths

    Parasemia plantaginis (photo: Bibiane Rojas)

    Woodtiger moths are aposematic moth species that are well studied in terms of their defensive secretions and color polymorphism in the lab of Johanna Mappes. As mate choice seems to also be through chemical signals, we are now investigating the role of chemical attraction in different geographic regions, in collaboration with Bibiane Rojas, Emily Burdfield-Steel and Pherobank. Two PhD students are working on this project: Chiara de Pasqual, who is focusing on variation in chemical signals and responses between the different color morphs, and Cristina Ottocento, who is focusing on geograpic variation in sexual attraction between populations from Georgia, Finland and Estonia.

    Evolution of chemical espionage

    Wasp on Pieris butterfly (photo: Nina Fatouros)

    Chemical espionage, the exploitation of chemical signals by natural enemies, has been examined in a wide range of insect taxa. When a Trichogramma egg parasitoid wasp detects the anti-aphrodisiac (AA) pheromone of Pieris butterflies, it hitch-hikes with a mated female butterfly to a host plant and then parasitizes her freshly laid eggs. This chemical espionage-and-ride strategy seems more widespread in egg parasitoids than so far assumed (Fatouros et al., Huigens et al. 2009). This project investigates to what extent natural enemies such as Trichogramma egg parasitoids affect the evolution of AAs in Pieris butterflies in nature, and is a collaboration between Nina Fatouros (WUR), Bart Pannebakker (WUR), Eric Schranz (WUR) and Astrid Groot, with PhD student Xianhui Shi (at Wageningen University, WUR).

    Evolution of circadian rhythms in moths

    Moth watch (design S. Haenniger)

    Many moth species show specific daily rhythms in their sexual activities, some species being sexually active early at night while others are sexually active late at night. However, very little is known on the genetic differentiation and evolution of this allochronic separation. We are investigating the genetic basis of allochronic differentiation in two strains of the noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda, and latitudinal and temporal variation in timing of sexual activities in the noctuid moth Helicoverpa armigera. Collaborative project with Sabine Haenniger (MPICE, Jena), David Heckel (MPICE) and Sander van Doorn (RUG)

    tRNA evolution

    Front PhD thesis Peter vd Gulik

    In the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), different sets and copy numbers of tRNA are found. We are investigating patterns of tRNA combinations that are shared and unique in the different domains to gain a better understanding of the evolution of tRNA gene sets. This is a collaboration between Peter van der Gulik (CWI), Wouter Hoff (Oklahoma State), Ken Kraaijeveld (Leiden Hogeschool), Martijn Egas (UvA), Astrid Groot and Jenna Gallie (MPI Evolutionary Biology).

    Variation in the biomedical model Galleria mellonella

    Waxmoth life stages (photo: Auke de Jong)

    Caterpillars of the greater waxmoth, Galleria mellonella, have become the model organisms in biomedical research to investigate the virulence of human pathogens, such as the yeast Candida albicans. However, results vary greatly among labs, which is likely due to variation in (genetic and environmental) background and rearing conditions of the moth. This project aims to determine the causes and consequences of variation in genetic background, rearing conditions and microbiome on virulence responses to pathogens. This is a collaborative project between Ferry Hagen at the Westerdijk Institute and Astrid Groot. PhD student on this project is Auke de Jong.

  • Teaching

    MSc course Current trends in ecology and evolution (course coordinator: Astrid Groot)

    Front TREE Vol 35

    In this course we give an introduction to the recent research developments and current research questions in the field of ecology and evolution. In group literature discussions, we critically evaluate recent research papers published in high-impact journals and evaluate their strong and weak points. Students get assignments to identify historical roots of research questions, find out current and new research techniques, and visualise and present their findings to the group. In addition, guest lectures will be given by ‘hotshots’ in the field, with whom students will discuss. The final product of the course is a research proposal, to be defended at the end of the course. This is the introduction course of the Master track Ecology and Evolution at the UvA.

    MSc course Science-based geo-ecological management (course coordinator: Astrid Groot)

    Sustainable development goals

    Nature conservation, restoration and agricultural use often generate conflicting demands between biodiversity, recreation, and other use of ecosystems. Often, interventions start without asking why we want to intervene and what are the aims. In addition, contrasting interests in management intentions may exist between stakeholders, executive organisations and scientists. This course aims to give insights in the ecological processes that should be considered to come to science-based management of geo-ecosystems. Geo-ecological and socio-ecological processes from local to landscape scale will be considered, and  the spatiotemporal dynamics of ecosystems. This is an elective course in the Master track Future Planet Ecosystem Science at the UvA.

    BSc course Ecogenomics (course coordinator: Harro Bouwmeester)

    QTL analysis (Fig 3, PNAS,

    The emerging field of ecological genomics strives to uncover the genetic and molecular mechanisms influencing organisms’ responses and adaptations to their natural environments. Achieving this aim requires insight in evolution and selection pressure and how that results in natural variation. Molecular biological and genomic tools have primarily been developed for mammalian and agricultural model organisms (such as yeast and Arabidopsis) representing a narrow spectrum of phenotypes, whereas many organisms that are the focus of ecological research have had limited genomic resources devoted to them. In this course, we focus on the ways in which ecogenomics aims to unite genomic and ecological approaches. Specific approaches that will be discussed and demonstrated include: genome sequencing, genetic mapping (GWAS and QTL analysis), expression analysis (transcriptomics), proteomics, metabolomics and epigenomics. This course is part of the BSc programme Biology at the UvA.

    Postgraduate course Chemical Communication (organizers: Marcel Dicke and Astrid Groot)

    Poster PE&RC course

    Chemical communication is one of the most abundant types of information exchange in life. Chemical signals or cues may be produced by macroorganisms or by their associated microorganisms. Chemical communication can also be exploited by a third party such as a predator exploiting cues from its prey. Chemical information may consist of individual compounds or complex mixtures. Responses to this information may be hardwired or phenotypically plastic. As a result, chemical communication and its exploitation shapes interactions between individuals, shapes population processes and structures communities. In this course, we focus on chemical information at different levels of biological organisation and pay attention at ecological processes and their underlying mechanisms. We include microorganism, plants and animals, their interactions and consequences for community dynamics. This is a course of the PE&RC graduate research school.

    NEMO Children lectures "Komen er nog diersoorten bij?" en "Waarom hebben kamelen geen schubben en vissen geen haar?" Guest lecturer and friend of IMC weekendschool
  • Possible student projects
    Students observing moth matings

    The overarching research aim in the Groot lab is to understand when and how sexual selection may drive differentation between populations, and thus initiate speciation. Our research includes behavioral analyses in lab and field experiments to quantify variation in female and male choice and interactions, chemical analyses to assess variation in female and male sex pheromones, genetic analyses to identify the genetic basis of sexually selected traits, and molecular analyses (qPCR, CRISPR-cas9) to functionally characterize the candidate genes.

    MSc and BSc students, as well as ERASMUS students and students from other (international) programs, can develop a research project in one of the different PhD and postdoc projects listed in the 'Research' tab, or in one of the collaborative projects listed in the 'Collaborative projects' tab.

    Experiment in wind tunnel
    Femtojet setup for CRISPR experiments
    Heliothis larva on leaf. Photo: Laila Kee

    Student projects have led to the following publications (student names italic):

    Gao K., Muijderman, D., Nichols, S., Heckel, D. G., Wang, P., Zalucki, M. P., & Groot, A. T. (2020). Parasite-host specificity: A cross-infection study of the parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 170, [107328].  

    Gao, K., van Wijk, M., Clement, Z., Egas, M., & Groot, A. T. (2020). A life-history perspective on sexual selection in a polygamous species. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 20(1), [53].

    Kerkvliet J, de Fouchier A, van Wijk M, Groot AT. 2019. The Bellerophon pipeline, improving de novo transcriptomes and removing chimeras. Ecology and Evolution 9: 10513-10521,

    Groot AT, van Wijk M, Villacis-Perez E, Kuperus P, Schoefl G, van Veldhuizen D, Heckel DG. 2019. Within-population variability in a moth sex pheromone blend, part 2: selection towards fixation. Royal Society open science 6: 182050

    Niepoth N, Gao K, De Roode JC, Groot AT. 2017.  Comparing behavior and clock gene expression between caterpillars, butterflies, and moths. Journal of Biological Rhythms 33: 54-64

    Nojima S, Claben A, Groot AT, Schal C. 2018. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemicals emitted from the pheromone gland of individual Heliothis subflexa females. PLoS ONE 13(8): e0202035.

    Dumenil C, Judd G, Bosch D, Baldessari M, Gemeno C, Groot AT. 2014. Intraspecific variation in the female sex pheromone of the codling moth Cydia pomonella. Insects 5: 705-721.

    Groot AT, Schöfl G, Inglis O, Donnerhacke S, Classen A, Schmalz A, Santangelo RG, Emerson J, Gould F, Schal C, Heckel DG. 2014. Within-population variability in a moth sex pheromone blend: genetic basis and behavioural consequences. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: 20133054.

    Karpinski A, Haenniger S, Schoefl G, Heckel DG, Groot AT. 2014. Host plant specialization in the generalist moth Heliothis virescens. Evolutionary Ecology 28:1075–1093.

  • Outreach & media
  • Group members
    Dr. Karen Bisschop, postdoc

    Karen is a postdoc fellow in the Origins of Life project "Predicting evolution". She obtained her PhD in 2020 at the University of Groningen (RUG) and Ghent University (UGent). More information on her past and present research projects and publications can be found here.

    Dr. Thomas Blankers, postdoc

    Thomas is postdoc fellow in the Origins of Life project "Predicting evolution" since January 2021. He obtained his PhD (summa cum laude) at the Humboldt University Berlin in 2016, after which he became postdoc in Kerry Shaw's lab at Cornell. When he was awarded a Marie Curie individual fellowship, he became postdoc in my lab to study the genetic basis of acetate production in Heliothine moths. More information on his past and present research projects and publications can be found here.

    Dr. Ke Gao, postdoc

    Ke conducted his PhD in my lab with a fellowship from the China Scholarship Council (CSC) (award no. 201506300162) He graduated in June 2021, after which he continued as postdoc to study the effects of parasite infection on the sexual attraction in moths. His PhD thesis can be found under Alumni below.

    Naomi Zweerus, PhD student

    Naomi investigates mutual mate choice in moths. That females emit a sex pheromone signal to attract males from a distance is well known, but is that all? Females likely also choose males, and this choice may be based on a male sex pheromone or maybe on different signals. This project is funded by NWO (ALWOP.2015.075) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (award IOS-1456973) with Coby Schal.

    Elise Fruitet, PhD student

    Elise's research focuses on the genetic basis of sex pheromone signals in moth, specifically the acetate esters in Heliothine moths. Using CRISPR-cas9, she is functionally characterizing candidate genes that were identified with QTL analysis. She also investigates whether acetates are costly to produce by conducting trade-off experiments. Her research is funded by the IMPRS at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology and the University of Amsterdam.

    Renée van Schaijk, PhD student

    Renée investigates geographic variation in sexual attraction in the invasive pest Spodoptera frugiperda, the Fall armyworm (FA) in Benin and Kenya. Together with Ahmed Hussain, PhD student at Wageningen University, she aims to develop a sustainable attract-and-infect strategy to control this pest. This project is funded by Dioraphte, Simonis BV and Pherobank, and is in collaboration with icipe and IITA Benin.

    Dennis van Veldhuizen, technician

    Dennis is the moth lab manager. He takes care of all the moth rearings and knows everything there is to know (and more) on moth matings, artificial diets, and what are the optimal circumstances for healthy and genetically diverse rearings.

    Alumni postdocs:

    Dr. Thomas Blankers (Marie Curie individual grant)

    Dr. Ken Kraaijeveld

    Dr. Meike Wortel

    Dr. Michiel van Wijk

    Dr. Seyed Ali Hosseini

    Dr. Arthur de Fouchier

    Dr. Fotini Koutroumpa (Marie Curie individual grant)

    Dr. Pascaline Dumas

    Dr. Fraz Hussain

    Dr. Gerhard Schoefl

    Dr. Jinzhu Xu - visiting postdoc at UvA from Guandong Academy of Forestry, Guanzhou, China

    Alumni PhD students:

    (MSc, BSc and exchange students listed underneath lab pictures):


    Pictures Groot lab

    Lab drinks May 2019
    Lab picture Dec 2018
    Oct 2018: Lab outing to Protix, the company where Seyed is now working (since summer 2018)
    Lab outing Jan 2018
    Groot group May 2018
    Lab outing July 2017
    Lab party December 2015
    PhD defense Seyed Ali Hosseini
    Lab outing December 2015
    Lab outing May 2014
    PhD defense Melanie Unbehend, Oct 2013

    Alumni (MSc, BSc and exchange students at UvA):


    Lotte de Jeu - MSc student

    Wout van der Heide - MSc student

    Rick de Jong - Aeres Hogeschool student

    Mink Amorison - Aeres Hogeschool student

    Merlijn van der Ven - BSc student

    Thomas Rietbergen - BSc student

    Amke JapTjoen - BSc student


    Niek Barmentlo - MSc student

    Laura Jane Caton - ERASMUS BSc student (academic year 2018 - 2019) (from UK)

    Robin Bongers - Van Hall Larenstein student International development management (academic year 2018 - 2019)

    Arlet Culhaci - Bioinformatics student Univ Applied Sciences Leiden (acad year 2018 - 2019)

    Kevin Peek - BSc student

    Elise de Jong - BSc student

    Sanne de Witte - BSc student

    Robin Moene - BSc student


    Alazne Díez Fernández - visiting PhD student from Estación Biológica de Doñana, Spain

    Federica Lotito - ERASMUS MSc student (from Italy)

    Quynh Dang - MSc student

    Kevin Noort - MSc student

    Yvonne Kortsmit - MSc student

    Daphne Muijderman - BSc student

    Sarah Nichols - BSc student

    Stefan Boonestro - BSc student

    Yoram Goedhart - BSc student

    Thomas Bennis - BSc student


    Natalie Niepoth - MSc student

    Camila Andrea Plata Corredor - Honorary MSc student at RUG

    Elianne van der Valk - BSc student

    Maud Hulswit - BSc student

    Jesse Kerkvliet - Bioinformatics student Univ Applied Sciences Leiden (acad year 2016 - 2017)

    Sarai Keestra - BSc student


    Melis Yalçin - ERASMUS student from Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey

    Dennis Hoop - BSc student


    Estefania Velilla Perdomo - MSc student


    Ernesto Villacis Perez - MSc student

    Zoe Clement - international student from Agrocampus Ouest, France. Internship at UvA


    Claudia Melis - ERASMUS student (from Italy)

    Ignaz van Hasselt - MSc student

    Laila Kee - MSc student


    Florian Winkler - MSc student

    Claire Dumenil - MSc student

    Orsi Decker – MSc student

    Tomasz Przybyłowicz – MSc student

    Alex Huiberse – MSc student

    Laura Hoekstra - BSc student

    Silvia Hondius - ROC student

  • Publications


    • Hosseini, S. A. (2017). Chemical ecology of moths: Role of semiochemicals in host location by Ectomyelois ceratoniae and mate guarding by Heliothis virescens. [details]









    • Barthel, A., Kopka, I., Vogel, H., Zipfel, P., Heckel, D. G., & Groot, A. T. (2014). Immune defence strategies of generalist and specialist insect herbivores. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 281(1788), 0897. [details]
    • Duménil, C., Judd, G. J. R., Bosch, D., Baldessari, M., Gemeno, C., & Groot, A. T. (2014). Intraspecific variation in female sex pheromone of the codling moth Cydia pomonella. Insects, 5(4), 705-721. [details]
    • Groot, A. T. (2014). Circadian rhythms of sexual activities in moths: A review. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 2, [43]. [details]
    • Groot, A. T., Schöfl, G., Inglis, O., Donnerhacke, S., Classen, A., Schmalz, A., ... Heckel, D. G. (2014). Within-population variability in a moth sex pheromone blend: genetic basis and behavioural consequences. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 218(1779), 20133054. [details]
    • Henniges-Janssen, K., Heckel, D. G., & Groot, A. T. (2014). Preference of diamondback moth larvae for novel and original host plant after host range expansion. Insects, 5(4), 793-804. [details]
    • Juárez, M. L., Schöfl, G., Vera, M. T., Vilardi, J. C., Murúa, M. G., Willink, E., ... Groot, A. T. (2014). Population structure of Spodoptera frugiperda maize and rice host forms in South America: are they host strains? Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 152(3), 182-199. [details]
    • Karpinski, A., Haenniger, S., Schöfl, G., Heckel, D. G., & Groot, A. T. (2014). Host plant specialization in the generalist moth Heliothis virescens and the role of egg imprinting. Evolutionary Ecology, 28(6), 1075-1093. [details]
    • Unbehend, M., Hänniger, S., Vásquez, G. M., Juárez, M. L., Reisig, D., McNeil, J. N., ... Groot, A. T. (2014). Geographic variation in sexual attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda corn- and rice-strain males to pheromone lures. PLoS ONE, 9(2), e89255. [details]
    • Xu, J., Huigens, M. E., Orr, D., & Groot, A. T. (2014). Differential arrestment of Trichogramma wasps to extreme sex pheromone types of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens. Ecological Entomology, 39(5), 627-636. [details]


    • Groot, A. T., Staudacher, H., Barthel, A., Inglis, O., Schöfl, G., Santangelo, R. G., ... Gould, F. (2013). One quantitative trait locus for intra- and interspecific variation in a sex pheromone. Molecular Ecology, 22(4), 1065-1080. [details]
    • Unbehend, M., Hänniger, S., Meagher, R. L., Heckel, D. G., & Groot, A. T. (2013). Pheromonal divergence between two strains of Spodoptera frugiperda. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 39(3), 364-376. [details]


    • Hagström, Å. K., Liénard, M. A., Groot, A. T., Hedenström, E., & Löfstedt, C. (2012). Semi-selective fatty acyl reductases from four heliothine moths influence the specific pheromone composition. PLoS ONE, 7(5), e37230. [details]
    • Juárez, M. L., Murua, M. G., García, M. G., Ontivero, M., Vera, M. T., Vilardi, J. C., ... Willink, E. (2012). Host association of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn and rice strains in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Journal of Economic Entomology, 105(2), 573-582. [details]
    • Przybyłowicz, T., Roessingh, P., Groot, A. T., Biesmeijer, J. C., Oostermeijer, J. G. B., Chittka, L., & Gravendeel, B. (2012). Possible chemical mimicry of the European lady’s slipper orchid (Cypripedium calceolus). Contributions to Zoology, 81(2), 103-110. [details]
    • Terenius, O., Papanicolaou, A., Garbutt, J. S., Eleftherianos, I., Huvenne, H., Kanginakudru, S., ... Smagghe, G. (2012). RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design. Journal of Insect Physiology, 57(2), 231-245. [details]


    • Groot, A. T., Classen, A., Inglis, O., Blanco, C. A., López Jr., J., Vargas, A. T., ... Schöfl, G. (2011). Genetic differentiation across North America in the generalist moth Heliothis virescens and the specialist H. subflexa. Molecular Ecology, 20, 2676-2692. [details]
    • Henniges-Janssen, K., Reineke, A., Heckel, D. G., & Groot, A. T. (2011). Complex inheritance of larval adaptation in Plutella xylostella to a novel host plant. Heredity, 107(5), 421-432. [details]
    • Henniges-Janssen, K., Schöfl, G., Reineke, A., Heckel, D. G., & Groot, A. T. (2011). Oviposition of diamondback moth in the presence and absence of a novel host plant. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 101, 99-105. [details]
    • Schöfl, G., Dill, A., Heckel, D. G., & Groot, A. T. (2011). Allochronic separation versus mate choice: nonrandom patterns of mating between fall armyworm host strains. American Naturalist, 177(4), 470-485. [details]


    • Blanco, C. A., Gould, F., Groot, A. T., Abel, C. A., Hernandez, G., Perera, O. P., & Teran-Vargas, A. P. (2010). Offspring From Sequential Matings Between Bacillus thuringiensis-Resistant and Bacillus thuringiensis-Susceptible Heliothis virescens Moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 103(3), 861-868.
    • Gould, F., Estock, M., Hillier, N. K., Powell, B., Groot, A. T., Ward, C. M., ... Vickers, N. J. (2010). Sexual isolation of male moths explained by a single pheromone response QTL containing four receptor genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(19), 8660-8665.
    • Groot, A. T., Blanco, C. A., Claen, A., Inglis, O., Santangelo, R. G., Lopez, J., ... Schal, C. (2010). Variation in Sexual Communication of the Tobacco Budworm, Heliothis virescens. SOUTHWESTERN ENTOMOLOGIST, 35(3), 367-372.
    • Groot, A. T., Classen, A., Staudacher, H., Schal, C., & Heckel, D. G. (2010). Phenotypic plasticity in sexual communication signal of a noctuid moth. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 23(12), 2731-2738.
    • Groot, A. T., Marr, M., Heckel, D. G., & Schoefl, G. (2010). The roles and interactions of reproductive isolation mechanisms in fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host strains. Ecological Entomology, 35, 105-118.
    • Lassance, J-M., Groot, A. T., Lienard, M. A., Antony, B., Borgwardt, C., Andersson, F., ... Lofstedt, C. (2010). Allelic variation in a fatty-acyl reductase gene causes divergence in moth sex pheromones. Nature, 466(7305), 486-U7.
    • Olsson, S. B., Kesevan, S., Groot, A. T., Dekker, T., Heckel, D. G., & Hansson, B. S. (2010). Ostrinia revisited: Evidence for sex linkage in European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) pheromone reception. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10.
    • Vogel, H., Heidel, A. J., Heckel, D. G., & Groot, A. T. (2010). Transcriptome analysis of the sex pheromone gland of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens. BMC Genomics, 11.


    • Blanco, C. A., Andow, D. A., Abel, C. A., Sumerford, D. V., Hernandez, G., López, J. D., ... Azuara-Domínguez, A. (2009). Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac resistance frequency in tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 102(1), 381-387.
    • Blanco, C. A., Rojas, M. G., Groot, A. T., Morales-Ramos, J., & Abel, C. A. (2009). Size and Chemical Composition of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Spermatophores. ANNALS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, 102(4), 629-637.
    • Gould, F., Groot, A. T., Vásquez, G. M., & Schal, C. (2009). Sexual communication in lepidoptera: A need for wedding genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology. In Molecular Biology and Genetics of the Lepidoptera (pp. 169-194). CRC Press.
    • Groot, A. T., Estock, M. L., Horovitz, J. L., Hamilton, J., Santangelo, R. G., Schal, C., & Gould, F. (2009). QTL analysis of sex pheromone blend differences between two closely related moths: Insights into divergence in biosynthetic pathways. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 39(8), 568-577.
    • Groot, A. T., Inglis, O., Bowdridge, S., Santangelo, R. G., Blanco, C., López, J. D., ... Schal, C. (2009). Geographic and temporal variation in moth chemical communication. Evolution, 63(8), 1987-2003.
    • Schöfl, G., Heckel, D. G., & Groot, A. T. (2009). Time-shifted reproductive behaviours among fall armyworm (Noctuidae: Spodoptera frugiperda) host strains: Evidence for differing modes of inheritance. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 22(7), 1447-1459.


    • Blanco, C. A., Perera, O. P., Groot, A., Hernández, G., & Terán-Vargas, A. P. (2008). Paternity allocation in a mutant Heliothis virescens colony. SOUTHWESTERN ENTOMOLOGIST, 33(4), 253-263.
    • Groot, A. T., Marr, M., Schöfl, G., Lorenz, S., Svatos, A., & Heckel, D. G. (2008). Host strain specific sex pheromone variation in Spodoptera frugiperda. Frontiers in Zoology, 5, [20].


    • Groot, A. T., Santangelo, R. G., Ricci, E., Brownie, C., Gould, F., & Schal, C. (2007). Differential attraction of Heliothis subflexa males to synthetic pheromone lures in Eastern US and Western Mexico. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 33(2), 353-368.


    • Groot, A. T., Horovitz, J. L., Hamilton, J., Santangelo, R. G., Schal, C., & Gould, F. (2006). Experimental evidence for interspecific directional selection on moth pheromone communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(15), 5858-5863.
    • Sheck, A. L., Groot, A. T., Ward, C. M., Gemeno, C., Wang, J., Brownie, C., ... Gould, F. (2006). Genetics of sex pheromone blend differences between Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa: A chromosome mapping approach. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 19(2), 600-617.


    • Choi, M. Y., Groot, A., & Jurenka, R. A. (2005). Pheromone biosynthetic pathways in the moths Heliothis subflexa and Heliothis virescens. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 59(2), 53-58.
    • Groot, A. T., Fan, Y., Brownie, C., Jurenka, R. A., Gould, F., & Schal, C. (2005). Effect of PBAN on pheromone production by mated Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa females. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 31(1), 15-28.
    • Groot, A., Gemeno, C., Brownie, C., Gould, F., & Schal, C. (2005). Male and female antennal responses in Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa to conspecific and heterospecific sex pheromone compounds. Environmental Entomology, 34(2), 256-263.


    • Groot, A. T., Ward, C., Wang, J., Pokrzywa, A., O'Brien, J., Bennett, J., ... Gould, F. (2004). Introgressing pheromone QTL between species: Towards an evolutionary understanding of differentiation in sexual communication. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 30(12), 2495-2514.


    • Drijfhout, F. P., Groot, A. T., Van Beek, T. A., & Visser, J. H. (2003). Mate location in the green capsid bug, Lygocoris pabulinus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 106(2), 73-77.
    • Groot, A. T., Heijboer, A., Visser, J. H., & Dicke, M. (2003). Oviposition preference of Lygocoris pabulinus (Het., Miridae) in relation to plants and conspecifics. Journal of Applied Entomology, 127(2), 65-71.


    • Drijfhout, F. P., Groot, A. T., Posthumus, M. A., van Beek, T. A., & de Groot, A. (2002). Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic responses of Lygocoris pabulinus (L.) to female and male produced volatiles. Chemoecology, 12(2), 113-118.
    • Groot, A. T., & Dicke, M. (2002). Insect-resistant transgenic plants in a multi-trophic context. Plant Journal, 31(4), 387-406.


    • Drijfhout, F. P., & Groot, A. T. (2001). Close-range attraction in Lygocoris pabulinus (L.). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 27(6), 1133-1149.
    • Groot, A. T., & Visser, J. H. (2001). Influence of host plants on sexual communication in the herbivorous bug Lygocoris pabulinus. Chemoecology, 11(4), 161-166.
    • Groot, A. T., Drijfhout, F. P., Heijboer, A., Van Beek, T. A., & Visser, J. H. (2001). Disruption of sexual communication in the mirid bug Lygocoris pabulinus by hexyl butanoate. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 3(1), 49-55.


    • Groot, A. T., & Smid, H. M. (2000). Polyandry in the mirid bug Lygocoris pabulinus (L.) - Effects on sexual communication and fecundity. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 38(2), 143-155.


    • Groot, A. T., Timmer, R., Gort, G., Lelyveld, G. P., Drijfhout, F. P., Van Beek, T. A., & Visser, J. H. (1999). Sex-related perception of insect and plant volatiles in Lygocoris pabulinus. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 25(10), 2357-2371.


    • Groot, A. T., Van Der Wal, E., Schuurman, A., Visser, J. H., Blommers, L. H. M., & Van Beek, T. A. (1998). Copulation behaviour of Lygocoris pabulinus under laboratory conditions. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 88(3), 219-228.


    • Hosseini, S. A. (2017). Chemical ecology of moths: Role of semiochemicals in host location by Ectomyelois ceratoniae and mate guarding by Heliothis virescens. [details]
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